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Dogs are either optimists or pessimists
Scientists have now confirmed what many pet owners have long believed: some dogs have a more gloomy view of life than others. The unusual picture of their psychology came from researchers at Bristol University A___________. Dogs that were generally calm when left alone were also found to have an optimistic attitude, B_________, and seemed to be more pessimistic according to the study. The research suggests that the problems caused by some dogs C______________ that could be treated with behavioural therapy. “Some of these dogs may have emotional issues D_____________,” said Michael Mendle, head of animal welfare and behaviour at the university. His team studied 24 animals at two dog homes in the UK. Half of the dogs were male and they were various breeds. Researchers began the study by going to a room with each dog in turn and playing for 20 minutes. They returned the next day, E_____________, during which the scientists recorded the animal’s behaviour with a video camera. They used the film to give each dog an anxiety score. A day or two later, they trained the dogs to walk to a food bowl that was full when placed at one end of a room and empty when placed at the other. F_______________, the scientists tested the animals’ mood by placing bowls in ambiguous positions – in the middle of the room, for example – and noting how quickly each dog went to the bowl. “Our study shows that dog are similar to people – that an optimistic dog is less likely to be anxious when left alone than one with a more pessimistic nature,” added Mendle.
1. while those that barked relieved themselves, destroyed furniture
2. who studied how dogs behave when separated from their owners
3. when they are left alone could indicate deeper emotional problems
4. who were more likely to react positively
5. when the dogs had learned the difference
6. but this time left the dog alone for five minutes
7. and owners should talk to their vets about possible treatments